DSLR (Digital Sigle Lens Reflect)

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DSLR (Digital Sigle Lens Reflect)

Post  Admin on Wed Apr 20 2011, 04:48

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Re: DSLR (Digital Sigle Lens Reflect)

Post  SOLEHUDDIN on Wed Apr 20 2011, 04:50

In photography, a viewfinder is what the photographer looks through to compose, and in many cases to focus, the picture. Most viewfinders are separate, and suffer parallax, while the single-lens reflex camera lets the viewfinder use the main optical system. Viewfinders are used in many cameras of different types: still and movie, film, analog and digital. A zoom camera usually zooms its finder in sync with its lens, one exception being rangefinder cameras.
Viewfinders can be optical or electronic. An optical viewfinder is simply a reversed telescope mounted to see what the camera will see. Its drawbacks are many, but it has two main advantages; it consumes no power, and it has "full resolution" (i.e. the resolution of the photographer's eye). An electronic viewfinder is a CRT, LCD or OLED based display device, though only the LCD is commonplace today due to size and weight. In addition to its primary purpose, an electronic viewfinder can be used to replay previously captured material, and as an on-screen display to browse through menus.
A still camera's optical viewfinder typically has one or more small supplementary LED displays surrounding the view of the scene. On a film camera, these displays show shooting information such as the shutter speed and aperture and, for autofocus cameras, provide an indication that the image is correctly focussed. Digital still cameras will typically also display information such as the current ISO setting and the number of remaining shots which can be taken in a burst. Another display which overlays the view of the scene is often provided. It typically shows the location and state of the camera's provided auto-focus points. This overlay can also provide lines or a grid which assist in picture composition.


Typical film SLR viewfinder information
It is not uncommon for a camera to have two viewfinders. For example, a digital still camera may have an optical viewfinder and an electronic one. The latter can be used to replay previously captured material, has an on-screen display, and can be switched off to save power. A camcorder may have two viewfinders, both electronic. The first is viewed through a magnifying eyepiece, and due to a rubber eyepiece it can be viewed perfectly even in bright light. The second viewfinder would be larger, of a higher resolution, and may be mounted on the side of the camera. Because it consumes more power, a method is often provided to turn it off to save energy.
Some special purpose cameras do not have viewfinders at all. These are, for example, web cameras and video surveillance cameras. They use external monitors as their viewfinders.

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DSLR syamim and rahman

Post  arr rahman on Wed Apr 20 2011, 05:12

Most digital single-lens reflex cameras (digital SLR or DSLR) are digital cameras that use a mechanical mirror system and pentaprism to direct light from the lens to an optical viewfinder on the back of the camera.
The basic operation of a DSLR is as follows: for viewing purposes, the mirror reflects the light coming through the attached lens upwards at a 90 degree angle. It is then reflected three times by the roof pentaprism, rectifying it for the photographer's eye. (Note that the diagram below incorrectly shows a non-roof pentaprism.) During exposure, the mirror assembly swings upward, the aperture narrows (if stopped down, or set smaller than wide open), and a shutter opens, allowing the lens to project light onto the image sensor. A second shutter then covers the sensor, ending the exposure, and the mirror lowers while the shutter resets. The period that the mirror is flipped up is referred to as "viewfinder blackout". A fast-acting mirror and shutter is preferred so as not to delay an action photo.
All of this happens automatically over a period of milliseconds, with cameras designed to do this 3–10 times per second.DSLRs are often preferred by professional still photographers because they allow an accurate preview of framing close to the moment of exposure, and because DSLRs allow the user to choose from a variety of interchangeable lenses. Most DSLRs also have a function that allows accurate preview of depth of field.
Many professionals also prefer DSLRs for their larger sensors compared to most compact digitals. DSLRs have sensors which are generally closer in size to the traditional film formats that many current professionals started out using. These large sensors allow for similar depths of field and picture angle to film formats, as well as their comparatively high signal to noise ratio.The term DSLR generally refers to cameras that resemble 35 mm format cameras, although some medium format cameras are technically DSLRs.

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DSLR

Post  Syamim Fitri on Wed Apr 20 2011, 05:15

Most digital single-lens reflex cameras (digital SLR or DSLR) are digital cameras that use a mechanical mirror system and pentaprism to direct light from the lens to an optical viewfinder on the back of the camera.
The basic operation of a DSLR is as follows: for viewing purposes, the mirror reflects the light coming through the attached lens upwards at a 90 degree angle. It is then reflected three times by the roof pentaprism, rectifying it for the photographer's eye. (Note that the diagram below incorrectly shows a non-roof pentaprism.) During exposure, the mirror assembly swings upward, the aperture narrows (if stopped down, or set smaller than wide open), and a shutter opens, allowing the lens to project light onto the image sensor. A second shutter then covers the sensor, ending the exposure, and the mirror lowers while the shutter resets. The period that the mirror is flipped up is referred to as "viewfinder blackout". A fast-acting mirror and shutter is preferred so as not to delay an action photo.
All of this happens automatically over a period of milliseconds, with cameras designed to do this 3–10 times per second.DSLRs are often preferred by professional still photographers because they allow an accurate preview of framing close to the moment of exposure, and because DSLRs allow the user to choose from a variety of interchangeable lenses. Most DSLRs also have a function that allows accurate preview of depth of field.
Many professionals also prefer DSLRs for their larger sensors compared to most compact digitals. DSLRs have sensors which are generally closer in size to the traditional film formats that many current professionals started out using. These large sensors allow for similar depths of field and picture angle to film formats, as well as their comparatively high signal to noise ratio.The term DSLR generally refers to cameras that resemble 35 mm format cameras, although some medium format cameras are technically DSLRs.

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Re: DSLR (Digital Sigle Lens Reflect)

Post  Peacekolopia on Mon Sep 08 2014, 03:22

Cara dan langkah-langkah kamera DSLR berfungsi:

Ketika kita melihat melalui viewfinder, aperture pada lensa dibuka dengan keluasan maksima walaupun pada ketika itu kita melaraskan aperture pada bukaan kecil. Aperture besar digunakan ketika kita sedang melihat melalui viewfinder bagi membolehkan imej yang dilihat adalah lebih cerah. Imej yang masuk melalui lensa seterusnya dipantulkan oleh reflex mirror menuju ke pentaprism. Pentaprism seterusnya membalikkan lagi imej beberapa kali sehinggalah akhirnya imej dapat dilihat pada viewfinder. Pada ketika ini, sensor kamera tidak menerima cahaya atau imej kerana shutter masih ditutup

Apabila punat ditekan untuk merakam gambar, aperture akan dilaraskan kepada saiz bukaan yang telah kita tetapkan sebelum ini. Dalam masa yang sama, reflex mirror akan dinaikkan ke atas bagi membolehkan cahaya masuk terus menuju ke bahagian belakang kamera sebelum cahaya didedahkan kepada sensor. Setelah reflex mirror ini dinaikkan, kita tidak lagi dapat melihat apa-apa imej melalui viewfinder

Shutter dibuka lalu cahaya akan didedahkan kepada sensor bagi merakam gambar

Setelah shutter dibuka dalam tempoh masa tertentu yang telah ditetapkan, ia akan ditutup kembali. Setelah itu, reflex mirror akan diturunkan semula, aperture akan dibuka semula ke saiz bukaan maksima dan kita akan dapat melihat semula imej melalui viewfinder.
Sistem kamera DSLR boleh dikatakan sistem yang rumit dan canggih jika dibandingkan dengan sistem kamera yang lain. Oleh sebab itulah sistem kamera DSLR dianggap sebagai kamera yang hampir sempurna, serba boleh dan mudah digunakan.
Diantara kelebihan kamera DSLR berbanding kamera compact adalah:

Lensa boleh ditukar ganti. Sistem kamera DSLR selalunya menyediakan puluhan jenis lensa berbeza untuk digunakan bagi berbagai tujuan.
Sensor bersaiz lebih besar. Sensor lebih besar bermakna kualiti imej yang dihasilkan adalah lebih baik dari segi resolusi gambar.
Kendalian lebih cepat. Kamera DSLR membolehkan kawalan yang lebih cepat dilakukan untuk auto focus, manual aperture, manual shutter dan sebagainya

Diantara kelemahan kamera DSLR berbanding kamera compact adalah:

Harga kamera dan lensa untuk kamera DSLR adalah lebih mahal
Kamera DSLR adalah lebih berat berbanding kamera compact. Penggunaan dalam tempoh masa yang lama menggunakan banyak tenaga.
Kamera DSLR dan lensanya bersaiz besar. Faktor ini menyukarkan rakaman foto secara kandid di kalangan subjek yang tidak dikenali.
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Re: DSLR (Digital Sigle Lens Reflect)

Post  Peacekolopia on Mon Sep 08 2014, 03:28

Apa Itu Rule of Thirds (ROT)

Perlu diingatkan, sebelum anda membaca penerangan mengenai Rule of Thirds (Terjemahan Google Translate - Kedaulatan Undang-Pertiga?), setiap undang-undang bukan semuanya wajib dipatuhi. Ia dicipta oleh manusia, tetap mempunyai banyak kelemahan, disamping kelebihan yang ada. Tidak mematuhi ROT bukan bererti gambar yang anda hasilkan akan menjadi tidak menarik, tetapi adalah lebih baik kita tahu dan belajar mengenainya agar sama-sama dapat memanfaatkannya di kemudian hari.

Fotografi tidak mempunyai garis panduan atau peraturan yang tetap bagi mendapatkan hasil imej yang terbaik. Dek kerana falsafah atau prinsip sebenar fotografi ialah dalam peraturan dunia fotografi, ia tidak mempunyai sebarang peraturan. Namun, ROT dicipta bagi mendapatkan komposisi penceritaan disebalik setiap petikan jari untuk mendapatkan sebuah gambar yang tidak mempunyai 'jiwa kosong'.

Untuk memahami ROT, anda perlu membayangkan gambar dibahagikan kepada 9 bahagian, menggunakan 2 garisan yang menegak, dan 2 garisan yang melintang. ROT mengatakan bahawa, anda perlu meletakkan elemen atau elemen-elemen (lebih dari satu subjek penting) di sepanjang garisan, atau pada mana-mana tempat ianya bersilang (bertemu).



Teori ROT

Jika anda meletakkan elemen penting pada garis silang atau di sepanjang garisan, gambar anda akan menjadi lebih natural, seimbang, dan akan membenarkan orang yang melihat berinteraksi dengan gambar secara lebih natural juga.





Dengan memahami komposisi letak duduknya ROT, anda akan dapati bahawa terdapat sesetengah gambar, merupakan snapshot biasa, manakala sesetengah yang lainnya pula mempunyai suatu 'jalan cerita'. Kajian mendapati mata manusia kebiasaannya akan menghala kepada garis silang atau titik pertemuan berbanding menghala terus ke tengah gambar, dan ROT berfungsi untuk menjadikan gambar lebih mudah dihadamkan oleh mata manusia berbanding memaksanya.

Saya berharap dengan sedikit penerangan pendek mengenai ROT ini dapatlah kita manfaatkan ia bersama, dan kemudiannya memecahkan pula peraturan tersebut (breaking the Rule of Thirds). Kerana apa? Yeah, cliche, tetapi setiap peraturan dicipta untuk dipecahkan (every rules was meant to be broken).


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Re: DSLR (Digital Sigle Lens Reflect)

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